(undiluted = 95% ethylene glycol, working solution in car radiator is 50%). Ethylene glycol (anti-freeze) toxicity is a serious emergency in both veterinary and human medicine. Ethylene Glycol – What Every Pet Owner Should Know. Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource. above is a valuable contribution, owing particularly to an absence of any previous equine evidence of ethylene glycol toxicity reported in the scientific literature. Ethylene glycol tests often are not beneficial after 12 hours post-ingestion. All animals are susceptible to ethylene glycol (EG) toxicity, but it is most common in dogs and cats. Antifreeze Toxicity in Dogs. Malicious poisoning. Although less toxic than EG, ingestion of propylene glycol (PG) may be associated with a toxic syndrome similar to the acute phase of EG toxicosis. The oral LD 50 of PG in dogs is ~9 mL/kg. Most intoxications are associated with ingestion of antifreeze, which is typically 95% EG. Thus antifreeze toxicity in dogs should be taken very seriously and one should get medical intervention as quickly as possible. The liver quickly breaks down ethylene glycol into toxic products that can lead to kidney failure and death. The term “toxic alcohols” is a collective term that includes methanol, ethylene glycol, and isopropyl alcohol. Poisoning from drained radiator water. Electrocution Fomepizole has been effectively used in dogs with ethylene glycol toxicity (Connally and others 1996) but it is currently unavailable as a licensed veterinary product in … When an unsuspecting pet first licks up the antifreeze — which, sadly, many do — the ethylene glycol (EG) can cause early signs such as: 3. Ethylene glycol (EG) toxicity Extended Version Prognosis: Good: Dogs treated within 5 hours, cats within 3 hours Guarded to poor: Very large doses presenting with seizures, nystagmus Prevention: Do not keep animals in the garage Lock antifreeze containers away from chewing dogs Ethylene glycol toxicity in a dog. Ethylene Glycol Poisoning in Dogs. If the dog exhibits any of these symptoms have the vet check the animal. Since it has a wider margin of safety as compared to its chemical cousin, ethylene glycol, it is commonly used to absorb extra water and maintain moisture in certain medicines, cosmetics, or dog and human food products. In cats, ingestion of a diet containing 6%–12% PG can result in Heinz body formation and decreased RBC survival. Treatment for ethylene glycol poisoning includes the antidote fomepizole (also known as 4-MP) or ethanol. Your vet will confirm ethylene glycol toxicity by taking a sample of your dog’s urine and looking for the presence of crystals under a microscope. 30 min after ingestion. Ethylene glycols peak at 1-4 hours post-ingestion and then begin to fall. therapy. In cats, ingestion of a diet containing 6%–12% PG can result in Heinz body formation and decreased RBC survival. I have treated ethylene glycol intoxication with both 4MP and vodka and hands down 4MP is the way to go from the management standpoint. Long term outcomes may include kidney failure and brain damage. Stage 1: This occurs within 30 minutes to 12 hours and looks similar to alcohol poisoning. Hewlett TP(1), Jacobsen D, Collins TD, McMartin KE. Ethylene glycol (E/G) is the active anti-freeze principle in radiator water additives. Ethylene glycol (EG) toxicity is commonly encountered in dogs and cats. These 95% commercial antifreeze preparations are diluted ~50% with water when used in vehicle cooling systems. Ethylene glycol and glycolate kinetics in rats and dogs. Author information: (1)Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Louisiana State University Medical Center, Shreveport 71130-3932. In contrast to the other two types of antifreeze, it only takes a small amount of ethylene glycol to poison your dog, and even less to poison your cat – just two tablespoons for a ten-pound dog and one teaspoon for a cat. Ethylene glycol is metabolized similarly to ETHANOL thus it is not surprising that animals show ataxia & CNs depression approx. The minimum lethal dose of ethylene glycol is 4-6 ml/kg body weight in dogs.” According to Pet Poison Helpline, common signs of ethylene glycol poisoning occur in stages. Like ethylene glycol, propylene glycol may be used as an antifreeze and can be found in high concentrations in RV, marine, and “pet safe” antifreeze products. This drug is administered intravenously multiple times over 24- 36 hours to prevent the development of kidney failure. Follow the diagnostic tree for Evaluating Ataxia in Suspected Ethylene Glycol Toxicity Evaluating Ataxia in Suspected Ethylene Glycol Toxicity. Fomepizole is expensive but life-saving when administered to dogs within the first 8-12 hours of ingestion. Ethylene glycol poisoning is poisoning caused by drinking ethylene glycol. Ethylene glycol poisoning is a potentially fatal condition that results from the ingestion of substances containing ethylene glycol, an organic compound commonly seen in antifreeze. Further Reading Publications Refereed papers. Without a doubt untreated ethylene glycol intoxication will kill a dog. Toxicity and death may occur after drinking even a small amount. It is an extremely dangerous toxin and the lethal dose for dogs is 2-3 ml/lb, and for cats it is 0.64 ml/lb. Ethylene glycol poisoning is common because antifreeze is widely used, it has a sweet taste and small lethal dose (only 3 to 4 teaspoons in dogs, 1 to 2 teaspoons in cats), and it … Later symptoms may include a decreased level of consciousness, headache, and seizures. ... Once the dog has ingested this ethylene glycol it becomes toxic in their bodies. How is ethanol used in the treatment of ethylene glycol toxicity? Ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) is a toxic alcohol that is found in various household and industrial agents. 5. EG is found in antifreeze (95% solution), windshield de-icing agents, and some industrial solvents (detergents, photographic developing solutions, brake fluid, motor oil, paints, wood stains, and polishes). Ethylene glycol is the ingredient found in most antifreeze products, usually at a concentration of 95-97%. ; Richards L, Ong H M, Davis M, Hodge P (2011) Ethylene glycol toxicity in a cat.Control & Therapy Series 263, 44-46.; Tart K M, Powell L L (2011) 4-methylpyrazole as a treatment in naturally occurring ethylene glycol intoxication in cats.J Vet Emerg Crit Care 21 (3), 268-272 PubMed. Last update: Oct 2, 2020 1 answer. Pathogenesis Etiology. The purpose of the current study was to determine if the Catachem test kit (Catachem Inc., Oxford, Connecticut) could precisely and accurately detect the presence of EG added to serum and plasma from 6 dogs and 4 cats. Ethylene glycol, a sweet-tasting, odorless liquid, is the active ingredient in antifreeze. The most used though is E Ethylene glycol which is mostly at a 95 to 97 percent concentration and which is an extremely dangerous toxin. Antifreeze poisoning occurs when pets drink antifreeze containing ethylene glycol. (In addition to being found in the car's engines to prevent freezing and overheating, it is used in hydraulic brake fluids.) Another issue that polyethylene glycol has is contamination. Ethylene Glycol Poisoning in Dogs. Both dogs and cats may be attracted to ethylene glycol by its sweet taste. Antifreeze products will mostly contain Ethylene glycol, Propylene glycol or Methanol as the active ingredient. 2 Ethylene glycol is most commonly found in automotive antifreeze and is also used as a precursor to industrial polymers. Ethylene glycol exposure can be extremely dangerous, with significant morbidity and mor … Ethylene glycol has a very narrow margin of safety – which means only a tiny amount can result in severe poisoning. The detailed report by Swor et al. The oral LD 50 of PG in dogs is ~9 mL/kg. (2) So, while a positive ethylene glycol test has a good chance of suggesting toxicity (although false positives can occur! Ethylene glycol toxicity: a retrospective pathological study in cats SHORT COMMUNICATION Before being metabolized, much like the excessive consumption of alcohol in human patients, EG causes irritation of the gastric mucosa, along with central nervous system depression. Early symptoms include intoxication, vomiting and abdominal pain. ANSWERS. Ethylene glycol is subsequently converted into more toxic metabolites, Ethylene Glycol. Why can't it be used in cats? Ethylene glycol (EG) toxicity results from its metabolism to glycolic acid and other toxic metabolites. When dogs and cats are exposed to antifreeze, it is essential that they immediately receive treatment. Antifreeze consumed as concentrated solution. Even a small amount of antifreeze can be fatal to dogs and cats. Toxicity to pets. Identifying ethylene glycol poisoning without the owner seeing or suspecting their dog encountering antifreeze is challenging - the symptoms may apply to a wide variety of conditions, and the poison acts quickly. Conclusion Ethylene glycol toxicity Ethylene glycol toxicity Frape, D. L. 2002-10-01 00:00:00 Ethylene glycol toxicity D. L. FRAPE The Priory, Churchyard, Mildenhall, Suffolk IP28 7EE, UK. Many animals will voluntarily drink ethylene glycol if antifreeze is spilled or leaks onto garage floors or driveways. Ethylene glycol (EG) is a clear, odorless compound that, because of its palatability, is occasionally ingested by both dogs and cats, with severe and potentially fatal consequences. Ethylene glycol can also be found, in lower concentrations, in some windshield de-icing agents, hydraulic brake fluid, motor oils, solvents, paints, film processing solutions, wood stains, inks, printer cartridges, etc. The treatment of choice for dogs is a drug called Fomepizole (or 4 - methylpyrazole or 4- MP). Best Answer. Ethylene glycol tastes sweet, which is why some animals are attracted to it. Antifreeze, which often contains ethylene glycol (EG), can be extremely dangerous to dogs and cats. Although less toxic than EG, ingestion of propylene glycol (PG) may be associated with a toxic syndrome similar to the acute phase of EG toxicosis. How is 4-methylpyrazole used in the treatment of ethylene glycol toxicity? ), a negative test does not rule out ethylene glycol toxicity. Q&A: Ethylene Glycol Toxicity Diagnosis and Treatment. polycyclic aromatic compounds, lead, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, and arsenic. It is a colorless, odorless, and sweet-tasting solution. The sweet taste and smell can be very enticing for pets, so always keep it securely stored! Antifreeze poisoning is a medical emergency, and early treatment is crucial. Depending on the way polyethylene glycol is manufactured, PEG can contain contaminants like ethylene oxide and 1,4-dioxane. There is a very small range of margin of toxicity in the case of ethylene glycol ingestion, in other words, a tiny dosage of this organic compound can result in fatal toxicity. However, there are a number of tests that together may indicate antifreeze poisoning if performed in a timely manner. Ingestion of ethylene glycol (EG) is a frequently encountered toxicity in dogs and cats. There are two major treatments for ethylene glycol toxicity. Most antifreezes contain ethylene glycol, a chemical compound that causes significant, often fatal, problems for both cats and dogs.
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